Lilypad successes, Makers and Education, DARPA Program

LIlypad Embroidery, a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (2.0) image from bekathwia's photostream

This post is an amalgam of several news items I read recently.

First off an article on the LilyPad’s success in bringing women into electronics projects. From a post in BoingBoing:

“MIT’s Leah Buechley and Benjamin Mako Hill recently published a paper called LilyPad in the Wild: How Hardwareʼs Long Tail is Supporting New Engineering and Design Communities, about the success of the LilyPad microcontroller in attracting women to electronics projects. LilyPad is derived from the Arduino open processor, but was “specifically designed to be more useful than other microcontroller platforms (like normal Arduino) in the context of crafting practices like textiles or painting.” The Buechley/Hill paper shows that this was a successful strategy for engaging women makers and contemplates how to use the LilyPad approach to engage with women and girls in other science/technology/engingeering/math (STEM) domains”

Also read Mako Hill’s blog post “Feminism and Microcontrollers“.  Discussions around the net have ranged from positive, to some reactionary that this buys into the sterotypes and women should use electronics in their original form just like hard core hackers do.  Personally, I like the LilyPad and soft circuits. I think that Lilypad Embroidery by Becky Stern is awesome combination of arts. (Image: LIlypad Embroidery, a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (2.0) image from bekathwia’s photostream).

Next up – Makers and Education

There was an NSF sponsored workshop on “Innovation, Education and the Maker Movement” on Monday following the NYC Maker Faire.  It was organized by Margaret Honey of the New York Hall of ScienceThomas Kalil of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and Dale Dougherty.  Tom gave the opening speech, which Dale published in his blog.  It gives a good summary of how Makers are changing the economy and education.  I havent seen any other output from the workshop yet. After meeting kids and educators this weekend at the Maui County Fair VEX Robotics Tournament I am even more excited about bringing a makerspace to our island.

DARPA MENTOR bringing fab labs to 1000 high schools

DARPA has a Draft BAA out for a program called MENTOR (Manufacturing Experimentation and Outreach). This program “is part of the Adaptive Vehicle Make program portfolio and is aimed at engaging high school students in a series of collaborative distributed manufacturing and design experiments. The overarching objective of MENTOR is to develop and motivate a next generation cadre of system designers and manufacturing innovators, and to ensure that high school-age youths are exposed to the principles of modern prize-based design and foundry-style digital manufacturing.”  They are looking to deploy digital fabrication equipment (3d printers, cnc, etc) to 1000 high schools globally and encourage partnerships with small business, non-profits, etc.  It looks like they are going to be sponsoring various competitions “in the development of cyber-electro-mechanical systems of moderate complexity such as go carts, mobile robots, small unmanned aircraft, etc.”  I would LOVE to get Hawaii into this program!  Anyone interested in getting involved please contact me.


Silhouette SD paper and vinyl cutter

Paper Fabrication with Silhouette and ModelMaker

Silhouette SD paper and vinyl cutter

Silhouette (aka Craft Robo) paper and vinyl cutter

I recently stumbled upon a great web site for teaching with paper crafting – DigitalFabrication.org is from the Curry Center for Technology and Teacher Education at U. Virginia. The site is mostly about using a Silhouette (aka Craft Robo), a desktop paper/vinyl cutting machine about the size of a small inkjet printer.

Costume CampBells Soup Can

Matt’s costume Campbells Soup Can

I have one of these machines and it is currently on-loan to CrashSpace. It does a good job cutting card-stock and vinyl.  One of the Crashers (Matt Pinner) used it to make a Campbell’s Soup costume with vinyl decals. Matt gave a class on using it back in May. I made some simple vinyl stickers for a car window.

Back to the Digital Fab site … they have some good videos and FAQ on the site about using it for teaching kids using paper cutting/folding (aka Kirigami).  One really cool video is this one showing the creation of a rack and pinion system from card stock.

They use a combination of Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw and a neat tool called fablab ModelMaker. The latter piece is a fairly low cost 3d modeler that drives the Silhouette and is targeted at schools/educational market, they are similar to the new wave of affordable 3d printers that have been made available.  They have a nice video showing kids from Punahou School (Oahu) using the machine with an inkjet printer to create ‘cereal boxes’ to learn math (although they may not know it.

I emailed the creators of ModelMaker and learned they are working on a program to roll the software out to a few more Hawaiian schools.  Also the software can create STL files to output to the Fab@School 3D printer.  Since this is the same format used by Makerbot, I’m going to have to experiment with it for both of my machines!

Desktop 3D Printing – Makerbot, RepRap et al

One tech of the Fab Lab/Hackerspace is the 3D printer, where an object is created by adding successive layers of material. There are a wide range of materials used – from frosting and clay, to various plastics, ceramics and even metals. Professional 3D printers started back in late ’80s with 3D Systems Stereo Lithography, which uses a laser to harden layers of liquid plastic. Today there are multiple vendors selling machines (StratasysObjet, Z-Corp, Dimension), with various technologies (laser sintering powders, etc).  All of these start with a 3D computer model of the part, slice it up into layers and then draw the layers with or onto the medium.   Sometimes the medium is a homogenous layer on which the machine draws (eg laser sinter metal/plastic, laser plastic curing, etc.)   other times the machine extrudes the medium.  The part takes shape as successive layers are created.  Some tech allows for ‘support material’ that supports overhangs and small parts while higher layers are built. The support material is removed later using a solvent wash or mechanical means (cutting).

All those neat commercial machines cost a fair chunk of money.  The ‘low priced’ HP branded DesignJet sells for about $17,500 (in europe). High end machines run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Not what small shops can afford!! There are a variety of service companies (eg Shapeways, RAPID Tech HI) to which you can upload designs and they will send you completed parts.  There is at least one directory of such service companies Rapid Today to help locate one nearby. (RAPID Technologies is our closest in Honolulu.)

On the other hand, there is the whole world of DIY hackers.  The granddaddy of the DIY 3D Printer is the RepRap – self replicating rapid prototyper.  They are currently on their 2nd generation design (Mendel) and are completely free and open source.  All designs and software are downloadable from the web.  There are a variety of child projects such as Fab@Home and Makerbot CNC.   I own a Makerbot Cupcake CNC, known as Goldbot.  It was built during a 3 day ‘Make-In” at CrashSpace in December 2009.  It will be one of the first machines available at Maui Makers.  The advent of these DIY tinkerer boxes was recently reported by the LA Times in the May 29 “These ‘printers’ make 3-D stuff” by Nathan Olivarez-Giles.  The article opens with Jay Leno’s use of a commercial machine to create parts for his antique car collection, and then moves quickly on to Sean Bonner of CrashSpace and Bre Pretis from Makerbot.  It closes with a quote from yours truly!  It also includes photos from Nathan’s visit to CrashSpace.

GoldBot and friends, (Michael Robinson Chavez / Los Angeles Times / February 23, 2010)

At present I am not the best evangelist for DIY 3D Printers. The current batch are definitely a tinkerers machine.  They take a lot of care and fussing to get good consistent results.  Some people have lots of success and I know some who actually make commercial parts with their machines. Alas, I am not in that category.  Goldbot suffers from a common malady of Makerbots – poor plastic feed.  The Makerbot uses a plastic wire (ABS or PLA) that it pushes down into a heat chamber and out a nozzle (a Plastruder).  One of the common failure modes is for the drive wheel to fail to properly grip the wire and slip, stopping the feed.  There are several reasons this happens and the Makerbot designers are all over the problem.  The new MK5 Plastruder has a new drive wheel that can be used in a MK4 Plastruder.  This, along with the redesigned heater and barrel of the MK5 should greatly reduce errors.  I am looking forward to installing one on Goldbot later this year, after I complete the move to Maui.

Design of parts is also an issue for all 3d printing.  You need some type of 3D CAD program – and these can be very expensive.  There are low cost/free alternatives, such as Google SketchUp and Blender, but all of them carry a learning curve – sometimes its pretty steep, more of a learning cliff.  3D Scanners exist (including DIY ones!) that can scan an existing object to create a 3d model.  After creating the raw model, the objects must be converted to proper format for the 3D printer.  This includes cutting it in layers and designing the tool path (speeds, geometry, etc).   The Makerbot tool chain includes several alternatives that are free.  The primary tool is SkeinForge which is really more of a collection of tools that handle various steps in the process.  SkeinFox is a Mac OSX application that simplifies control of SkeinForge.  There are LOTS of parameters to consider – some of which make a big difference in printing success, others dont seem to have much effect at all.  It takes a fair bit of experience to know what to tweak.  Then again, I have been fairly successful using some of the pre-canned parameter sets.

3D Printing will be a feature of Maui Makers.  Goldbot will be available for tinkerers. I plan to get some more experience with it myself so I can help others learn about the process and create.  There will, in time, be a wiki page tree for using our 3D printer.  I’ll update this post with links then.